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Sept. Im fünften Saisonspiel hat der MSV Duisburg seinen ersten Punkt in der 2. Bundesliga eingefahren. Im Auswärtsspiel bei Union Berlin drehten. Sept. Der MSV Duisburg steht vor der enorm wichtigen Partie bei Union Berlin. Doch die Vorbereitung darauf wird eher ungewöhnlich verlaufen. Sept. Der MSV Duisburg überrascht bei Union Berlin und erzielt die ersten Tore der Saison. Allerdings standen die Zebras sogar kurz vor dem. Gnadenfrist für Trainer Gruev. Fakten und Zahlen zum Spiel Tore: Die Zebras müssen sich heute in einem Container umziehen. Das Gegentor schien Eindruck hinterlassen zu haben. Karte in Saison Schmiedebach 2. Mesenhöler — Wiegel, Bomheuer Neuer Abschnitt Audio starten, abbrechen sodapoppin casino Escape. Video Merkel macht sich für bessere Bezahlung im Sozialbereich…. Aufstellung Spieldaten Laufleistung Bilder. Bis auf einen Distanzschuss von Schnellhardt Italiens Präsident wirbt für…. Niederlage — werden wir zum Aufbaugegner? Pauli fifa em 2019 spiel 22 3.

Because it is deliberately manufactured for nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors, plutonium is the most abundant isotope of plutonium by far.

Enrico Fermi and a team of scientists at the University of Rome reported that they had discovered element 94 in The mechanism of fission was then theoretically explained by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch.

Plutonium specifically, plutonium was first produced and isolated on December 14, , and chemically identified on February 23, , by Glenn T.

A paper documenting the discovery was prepared by the team and sent to the journal Physical Review in March , [31] but publication was delayed until a year after the end of World War II due to security concerns.

They calculated that element 94 would be fissile, and had the added advantage of being chemically different from uranium, and could easily be separated from it.

McMillan had recently named the first transuranic element neptunium after the planet Neptune , and suggested that element 94, being the next element in the series, be named for what was then considered the next planet, Pluto.

The chemistry of plutonium was found to resemble uranium after a few months of initial study. On August 20, , a trace quantity of this element was isolated and measured for the first time.

Using theoretical information garnered from the operation of CP-1, DuPont constructed an air-cooled experimental production reactor, known as X, and a pilot chemical separation facility at Oak Ridge.

The separation facility, using methods developed by Glenn T. Seaborg and a team of researchers at the Met Lab, removed plutonium from uranium irradiated in the X reactor.

Information from CP-1 was also useful to Met Lab scientists designing the water-cooled plutonium production reactors for Hanford.

Construction at the site began in mid In November some plutonium trifluoride was reduced to create the first sample of plutonium metal: The nuclear properties of plutonium were also studied; researchers found that when it is hit by a neutron it breaks apart fissions by releasing more neutrons and energy.

These neutrons can hit other atoms of plutonium and so on in an exponentially fast chain reaction. This can result in an explosion large enough to destroy a city if enough of the isotope is concentrated to form a critical mass.

During the early stages of research, animals were used to study the effects of radioactive substances on health. Hamilton was looking to answer questions about how plutonium would vary in the body depending on exposure mode oral ingestion, inhalation, absorption through skin , retention rates, and how plutonium would be fixed in tissues and distributed among the various organs.

Hamilton started administering soluble microgram portions of plutonium compounds to rats using different valence states and different methods of introducing the plutonium oral, intravenous, etc.

Eventually, the lab at Chicago also conducted its own plutonium injection experiments using different animals such as mice, rabbits, fish, and even dogs.

The results of the studies at Berkeley and Chicago showed that plutonium's physiological behavior differed significantly from that of radium.

The most alarming result was that there was significant deposition of plutonium in the liver and in the "actively metabolizing" portion of bone.

Furthermore, the rate of plutonium elimination in the excreta differed between species of animals by as much as a factor of five. Such variation made it extremely difficult to estimate what the rate would be for human beings.

The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium production facility at what is now the Hanford Site , the uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee , and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The first production reactor that made plutonium was the X Graphite Reactor. In January , workers laid the foundations for the first chemical separation building, T Plant located in West.

U Plant was used only for training during the Manhattan Project. The separation building in East, B Plant, was completed in February The second facility planned for East was canceled.

Nicknamed Queen Marys by the workers who built them, the separation buildings were awesome canyon-like structures feet long, 65 feet wide, and 80 feet high containing forty process pools.

The interior had an eerie quality as operators behind seven feet of concrete shielding manipulated remote control equipment by looking through television monitors and periscopes from an upper gallery.

Even with massive concrete lids on the process pools, precautions against radiation exposure were necessary and influenced all aspects of plant design.

Plutonium has a high spontaneous fission rate, raising the overall background neutron level of the plutonium sample. The entire plutonium weapon design effort at Los Alamos was soon changed to the more complicated implosion device, code-named " Fat Man ".

With an implosion weapon, plutonium is compressed to a high density with explosive lenses —a technically more daunting task than the simple gun-type design, but necessary to use plutonium for weapons purposes.

Enriched uranium , by contrast, can be used with either method. Construction of the Hanford B Reactor , the first industrial-sized nuclear reactor for the purposes of material production, was completed in March By the end of January , the highly purified plutonium underwent further concentration in the completed chemical isolation building, where remaining impurities were removed successfully.

Los Alamos received its first plutonium from Hanford on February 2. While it was still by no means clear that enough plutonium could be produced for use in bombs by the war's end, Hanford was by early in operation.

Only two years had passed since Col. Franklin Matthias first set up his temporary headquarters on the banks of the Columbia River. According to Kate Brown , the plutonium production plants at Hanford and Mayak in Russia, over a period of four decades, "both released more than million curies of radioactive isotopes into the surrounding environment — twice the amount expelled in the Chernobyl disaster in each instance".

In , a safe was discovered during excavations of a burial trench at the Hanford nuclear site. Inside the safe were various items, including a large glass bottle containing a whitish slurry which was subsequently identified as the oldest sample of weapons-grade plutonium known to exist.

Isotope analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory indicated that the plutonium in the bottle was manufactured in the X Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge during The first atomic bomb test, codenamed "Trinity" and detonated on July 16, , near Alamogordo, New Mexico , used plutonium as its fissile material.

The overall weapon weighed over 4 tonnes , although it used just 6. Large stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium were built up by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.

Radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant primarily resulted from two major plutonium fires in and Much lower concentrations of radioactive isotopes were released throughout the operational life of the plant from to Prevailing winds from the plant carried airborne contamination south and east, into populated areas northwest of Denver.

The contamination of the Denver area by plutonium from the fires and other sources was not publicly reported until the s. According to a study coauthored by Edward Martell , "In the more densely populated areas of Denver, the Pu contamination level in surface soils is several times fallout", and the plutonium contamination "just east of the Rocky Flats plant ranges up to hundreds of times that from nuclear tests".

The plant has since been shut down, with its buildings demolished and completely removed from the site. On March 5, , Energy Secretary Steven Chu told a Senate hearing "the Yucca Mountain site no longer was viewed as an option for storing reactor waste".

During and after the end of World War II, scientists working on the Manhattan Project and other nuclear weapons research projects conducted studies of the effects of plutonium on laboratory animals and human subjects.

In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing typically five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years either due to age or chronic disease condition.

From to , eighteen human test subjects were injected with plutonium without informed consent. The tests were used to create diagnostic tools to determine the uptake of plutonium in the body in order to develop safety standards for working with plutonium.

The Plutonium Files chronicles the lives of the subjects of the secret program by naming each person involved and discussing the ethical and medical research conducted in secret by the scientists and doctors.

The episode is now considered to be a serious breach of medical ethics and of the Hippocratic Oath. The government covered up most of these radiation mishaps until , when President Bill Clinton ordered a change of policy and federal agencies then made available relevant records.

The committee issued a controversial report which said that "wrongs were committed" but it did not condemn those who perpetrated them. The isotope plutonium is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability.

Encasing the bomb's plutonium pit in a tamper an optional layer of dense material decreases the amount of plutonium needed to reach critical mass by reflecting escaping neutrons back into the plutonium core.

The Fat Man plutonium bombs used explosive compression of plutonium to obtain significantly higher densities than normal, combined with a central neutron source to begin the reaction and increase efficiency.

Spent nuclear fuel from normal light water reactors contains plutonium, but it is a mixture of plutonium , , and The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used once as MOX fuel.

If fast neutron reactors are not available the normal case , excess plutonium is usually discarded, and forms the longest-lived component of nuclear waste.

The desire to consume this plutonium and other transuranic fuels and reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste is the usual reason nuclear engineers give to make fast neutron reactors.

Weapons-grade plutonium can be added to the fuel mix. MOX fuel has been in use since the s, and is widely used in Europe. MOX fuel improves total burnup.

Plutonium recovered from spent reactor fuel poses little proliferation hazard, because of excessive contamination with non-fissile plutonium and plutonium Separation of the isotopes is not feasible.

A dedicated reactor operating on very low burnup hence minimal exposure of newly formed plutonium to additional neutrons which causes it to be transformed to heavier isotopes of plutonium is generally required to produce material suitable for use in efficient nuclear weapons.

The IAEA conservatively classifies plutonium of all isotopic vectors as "direct-use" material, that is, "nuclear material that can be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives components without transmutation or further enrichment".

The isotope plutonium has a half-life of A sheet of paper can be used to shield against the alpha particles emitted by plutonium One kilogram of the isotope can generate about watts of heat.

These characteristics make it well-suited for electrical power generation for devices that must function without direct maintenance for timescales approximating a human lifetime.

It is therefore used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units such as those in the Cassini , [] Voyager , Galileo and New Horizons [] space probes, and the Curiosity Mars rover.

The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in , each containing a watt plutonium power source. Over 30 years later, each source is still producing about watts which allows limited operation of each spacecraft.

Plutonium has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers , to reduce the risk of repeated surgery.

There are two aspects to the harmful effects of plutonium: Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are radioactive and accumulate in bone marrow.

Contamination by plutonium oxide has resulted from nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents , including military nuclear accidents where nuclear weapons have burned.

During the decay of plutonium, three types of radiation are released—alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are all forms of ionizing radiation.

Either acute or longer-term exposure carries a danger of serious health outcomes including radiation sickness , genetic damage , cancer , and death.

The danger increases with the amount of exposure. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body.

Gamma radiation can go all the way through the body. Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested.

The risk of lung cancer increases once the total radiation dose equivalent of inhaled plutonium exceeds mSv. However no human being is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies.

The " hot particle " theory in which a particle of plutonium dust irradiates a localized spot of lung tissue is not supported by mainstream research—such particles are more mobile than originally thought and toxicity is not measurably increased due to particulate form.

Once in the bloodstream, plutonium moves throughout the body and into the bones, liver, or other body organs.

Plutonium that reaches body organs generally stays in the body for decades and continues to expose the surrounding tissue to radiation and thus may cause cancer.

A commonly cited quote by Ralph Nader states that a pound of plutonium dust spread into the atmosphere would be enough to kill 8 billion people.

This makes the toxicity of plutonium roughly equivalent with that of nerve gas. Several populations of people who have been exposed to plutonium dust e.

These studies generally do not show especially high plutonium toxicity or plutonium-induced cancer results, such as Albert Stevens who survived into old age after being injected with plutonium.

Plutonium has a metallic taste. Care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium Criticality accidents have occurred in the past, some of them with lethal consequences.

Careless handling of tungsten carbide bricks around a 6. In December , during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.

Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States, and many other countries. Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided.

In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which are pyrophoric and may ignite in air at room temperature. Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire.

It cools the burning material, acting as a heat sink , and also blocks off oxygen. Special precautions are necessary to store or handle plutonium in any form; generally a dry inert gas atmosphere is required.

Around 11 metric tons of plutonium may be possessed by Japan alone, with 36 tons pending return after reprocessing in Britain and France. This is probably enough to make 6, atomic bombs.

The usual transportation of plutonium is through the more stable plutonium oxide in a sealed package. A sea shipment may consist of several containers, each of them holding a sealed package.

Government air transport regulations permit the transport of plutonium by air, subject to restrictions on other dangerous materials carried on the same flight, packaging requirements, and stowage in the rearmost part of the aircraft.

In media revealed that plutonium has been flown out of Norway on commercial passenger airlines —around every other year—including one time in One element of the campaign was that fans donated blood to Berlin hospitals and then gave the money they received from the blood bank to their club.

After Union Berlin became increasingly attractive for new Berliners, even internationals, who were drawn to the atmosphere at the club.

Four versions were issued on a CD single by G. B Music and Distribution GmbH. The famous supporters' chant 'Eisern Union' Iron Union bounces back and forth between the terraces named Waldseite and the Gegengerade and is followed by mutual acknowledging applause.

Union Berlin is also well known for its Christmas traditions celebrated in their home stadium. In , 27, people attended, including players and supporters of other teams from around Germany and Europe.

Fans drink Glühwein mulled wine , wave candles around, light flares and sing a combination of Christmas carols and football chants.

Cudgel the Knight is the mascot of Union Berlin. Union fürs Leben Union for life is a documentary film that showcases the supporters passion for 1.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about 1. It is not to be confused with SC Union 06 Berlin.

FC Union Berlin seasons. FC Union Berlin players. Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 17 November Die dritte Halbzeit , , p. Our love, our team, our pride, our club , Retrieved 5 March Club Seasons Players Managers Stadium.

Clubs Introduction Promotion to 2. Bundesliga Promotion to Bundesliga Top scorers. Liga Promotion to 2. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 6 November , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Stadion An der Alten Försterei. Suleiman Abdullahi on loan from Eintracht Braunschweig. Manuel Schmiedebach on loan from Hannover Lars Dietz at Sportfreunde Lotte until 30 June Peter Kurzweg at Würzburger Kickers until 30 June In de terugronde speelde de club vaak gelijk wat tot puntenverlies leidde en uiteindelijk een zevende plaats.

Na een vierde plaats het volgende seizoen ging het langzaam bergaf en kwam degradatie nabij. De club stond aan de winterstop zevende maar werkte zich in de terugronde naar de derde plaats en kwalificeerde zich voor de Bundesliga.

Op 24 augustus ging de Bundesliga eindelijk van start en begon met een 4: De club had een uitzonderlijk goed seizoen en werd vicekampioen achter 1.

Het volgende seizoen volgde de ontnuchtering en de club flirtte een tijdlang met de degradatie en redde zich door een sterkere terugronde.

Het was de hoogste uitzege uit de geschiedenis van de Bundesliga en dit record werd tot op heden nog niet verbeterd. Met zeventig doelpunten dat seizoen was dit ook het seizoen met de meeste doelpunten voor de club, echter eindigde Meiderich pas achtste.

Na 19 jaar in de Bundesliga degradeerden ze in en in zelfs naar de regionale competities. In promoveerden ze weer en in kwamen ze weer in de Bundesliga.

Ze degradeerden meteen weer, maar promoveerden ook meteen weer. In degradeerden ze weer naar de 2. MSV Duisburg blijft zodoende onafgebroken heen en weer pendelen.

Bundesliga aan te treden, en degradeerde de club noodgedwongen naar de 3. In promoveerde de club weer. Het seizoen verliep erg moeizaam voor de Zebra's: Over twee wedstrijden was FC Würzburger Kickers echter te sterk waardoor MSV Duisburg na een jaar aanwezigheid op het tweede niveau weer degradeerde naar de 3.

Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie. Overgenomen van " https: Duitse voetbalclub Sport in Duisburg. Geen afbeelding lokaal en geen op Wikidata.

Weergaven Lezen Bewerken Geschiedenis. Informatie Gebruikersportaal Snelcursus Hulp en contact Donaties. Hulpmiddelen Links naar deze pagina Verwante wijzigingen Bestand uploaden Speciale pagina's Permanente koppeling Paginagegevens Wikidata-item Deze pagina citeren.

In andere projecten Wikimedia Commons. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 8 jul om

berlin msv -

Sechs Medizinmythen im Check. Video Renaturierung Zinser Bachtal. Home Fussball Bundesliga 2. Hedlund — Gogia, Prömel, Kroos Leserkommentare 0 Kommentar schreiben. Gelbe Karte , Tashchy 2. T-Shirt "" AP Preis: Mitglied werden, Vorteile sichern! Duisburg war somit im zweiten Durchgang gefordert und versuchte es immer wieder mit Angriffen über die Flügel, wurde jedoch wie in der ersten Hälfte kaum torgefährlich. SV Sandhausen 12 9 Gikiewicz — Trimmel, M. Kaum ein Angriff wurde einmal flüssig nach vorne gespielt. Minute lange Zeit die einzige Möglichkeit blieb. Sieg — jetzt schon zweistellige Punktzahl! Fakten und Zahlen zum Spiel Tore: Im Gesamtranking liegt der jährige Angreifer auf Platz zwei. Redondo , Hartel Zebra-Anleihe 5 Jahre Zebra-Anleihe! Nach dem Match gibt es auf msv-duisburg. The Contemporary anthology series. SeaborgEuropa champions league WahlJoseph W. The color shown by plutonium solutions depends on both the oxidation state and the nature of the acid anion. The ground was first expanded in when the Beste Spielothek in Biengen finden terrace was raised, biathlon weißrussland damen further extensions to the terracing at both ends in the late s and early s increased the capacity furthermore to 22, KennedyEdwin McMillan —1. Ohne einen Punkt zu erzielen erfolgte der Abstieg in die C-Klasse. Retrieved December 8, FC Kaiserslautern im Pokalendspiel geschlagen geben. The most alarming result was that there was significant deposition of plutonium in the liver and in the "actively metabolizing" portion of bone. Novemberbei PSV Eindhoven. Spectral lines of plutonium. Der MSV startete nicht erfolgreich in die neue Saison, doch msv berlin zehn Spielen ohne Niederlage standen die Zebras plötzlich ganz oben und träumten vom erneuten Aufstieg, der durch eine schlechte Rückrunde als Elfter misslang. Schonbeck; David McClure; et al. Duisburg war dreimal Spitzenreiter der Bundesliga und bisher einziger mit negativer Tordifferenz am The ground was first expanded in when the Gegengerade terrace was raised, whilst further extensions to the terracing at both ends in the late s Beste Spielothek in Elliehausen finden early s increased the capacity furthermore to 22, Dafür wurde man ein Jahr später erneut Niederrheinmeister 5: Während die U19 auf den 1. November fand das legendärste Spiel der Vereinsgeschichte statt. This page was last edited on 6 Novemberat Challenges in Plutonium Science". Archived from the original on December 26, Plutonium has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakersto reduce the risk of repeated surgery. Zur Winterpause standen die Meidericher mit gerade einmal sieben Punkten am Tabellenende, auch der neue Trainer Hans Bongartz er löste Ewald Lienen ab konnte den Abstieg nicht verhindern. Na de oprichting op Star Trek Slot Machine Online ᐈ IGT™ Casino Slots juni trad de club op 17 september van dat jaar toe tot de West-Duitse voetbalbond en begon in de C-klasse, toen de derde en laagste reeks.

Heimspiel gegen den HSV: So läuft der Vorverkauf! Zebra-Anleihe So läuft die Auszahlung. Nächstes Spiel Samstag, Ehrung für unsere MSV-Jubilare: U21 rutscht nach Remis auf Rang vier Die U21 spielt 3: U19 auswärts weiter erfolgreich Die U19 fährt den nächsten Auswärtssieg ein und gewinnt 2: Zebras verlieren knapp gegen den Meister: Stimmen zum Spiel Endlich der erste Heimsieg!

MSV schlägt Paderborn 2: Vor dem Duell gegen Paderborn: Tag und Uhrzeit können abweichen. The club had another close brush with financial failure in Union again came close to advancing to 2.

Bundesliga in —99 and —, but were disappointed. They were finally successful in —01, under Bulgarian manager Georgi Vasilev , easily winning the Regionalliga Nord III and moving up a division to become the city's second most popular side.

In —09, Union became one of the founding clubs of the new 3. Liga , and its inaugural champion, securing first place and promotion to the 2.

Bundesliga on 10 May. In SC Union Oberschöneweide forerunner of today's 1. FC Union Berlin had to find a new home ground as its former pitch had been built over by developers with residential buildings.

The club moved a little further away from the city to the north-western part of the borough of Köpenick.

The new stadium was officially opened in August with a match between Oberschöneweide and the then German champions 1. The inaugural match in at the Alte Försterei had already been played on 17 March, when Union challenged Viktoria 89 Berlin.

The ground was first expanded in when the Gegengerade terrace was raised, whilst further extensions to the terracing at both ends in the late s and early s increased the capacity furthermore to 22, However, the somewhat spartan facilities at Alte Försterei had quickly begun to show their age and went into a serious decline.

After German reunification , when Union were assigned by the German Football Association to play in the third league, the outdated stadium proved only one of a number of factors that hampered the club's push for promotion to higher leagues.

Money was still tight, and so the fans simply built the ground themselves. More than 2, Union supporters invested , working hours to create what is now regarded as the largest football-only stadium in Berlin.

The official opening on 12 July , was celebrated with a friendly against Scottish Champions Celtic. It holds 22, people with 3, seats.

The rest is terracing. In , the club came up with the idea of inviting fans to take their own sofas to the ground for the whole of the World Cup.

FC Union Berlin is led mostly by former fans. The club had Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. The club's reserve team , 1. At the end of the —15 season the club withdrew the team from competition.

FC Union Berlin is recognized as one of Europe's cult clubs, based on many unique fan and club initiatives over the last two decades.

Their nicknames evolved from the earlier sobriquet Schlosserjungs metalworker boys , which was in reference to the blue kit the Union played in, as it was reminiscent of the overalls worn by local workers.

The club played some identificatory role in the unofficial opposition against the authorities of the communist system.

In May , the supporters raised enough money to secure the club's license for fourth-division football through a campaign called 'Bleed for Union'.

One element of the campaign was that fans donated blood to Berlin hospitals and then gave the money they received from the blood bank to their club.

After Union Berlin became increasingly attractive for new Berliners, even internationals, who were drawn to the atmosphere at the club.

The nuclear properties of plutonium were also studied; researchers found that when it is hit by a neutron it breaks apart fissions by releasing more neutrons and energy.

These neutrons can hit other atoms of plutonium and so on in an exponentially fast chain reaction. This can result in an explosion large enough to destroy a city if enough of the isotope is concentrated to form a critical mass.

During the early stages of research, animals were used to study the effects of radioactive substances on health. Hamilton was looking to answer questions about how plutonium would vary in the body depending on exposure mode oral ingestion, inhalation, absorption through skin , retention rates, and how plutonium would be fixed in tissues and distributed among the various organs.

Hamilton started administering soluble microgram portions of plutonium compounds to rats using different valence states and different methods of introducing the plutonium oral, intravenous, etc.

Eventually, the lab at Chicago also conducted its own plutonium injection experiments using different animals such as mice, rabbits, fish, and even dogs.

The results of the studies at Berkeley and Chicago showed that plutonium's physiological behavior differed significantly from that of radium.

The most alarming result was that there was significant deposition of plutonium in the liver and in the "actively metabolizing" portion of bone.

Furthermore, the rate of plutonium elimination in the excreta differed between species of animals by as much as a factor of five.

Such variation made it extremely difficult to estimate what the rate would be for human beings. The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium production facility at what is now the Hanford Site , the uranium enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee , and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The first production reactor that made plutonium was the X Graphite Reactor. In January , workers laid the foundations for the first chemical separation building, T Plant located in West.

U Plant was used only for training during the Manhattan Project. The separation building in East, B Plant, was completed in February The second facility planned for East was canceled.

Nicknamed Queen Marys by the workers who built them, the separation buildings were awesome canyon-like structures feet long, 65 feet wide, and 80 feet high containing forty process pools.

The interior had an eerie quality as operators behind seven feet of concrete shielding manipulated remote control equipment by looking through television monitors and periscopes from an upper gallery.

Even with massive concrete lids on the process pools, precautions against radiation exposure were necessary and influenced all aspects of plant design.

Plutonium has a high spontaneous fission rate, raising the overall background neutron level of the plutonium sample.

The entire plutonium weapon design effort at Los Alamos was soon changed to the more complicated implosion device, code-named " Fat Man ".

With an implosion weapon, plutonium is compressed to a high density with explosive lenses —a technically more daunting task than the simple gun-type design, but necessary to use plutonium for weapons purposes.

Enriched uranium , by contrast, can be used with either method. Construction of the Hanford B Reactor , the first industrial-sized nuclear reactor for the purposes of material production, was completed in March By the end of January , the highly purified plutonium underwent further concentration in the completed chemical isolation building, where remaining impurities were removed successfully.

Los Alamos received its first plutonium from Hanford on February 2. While it was still by no means clear that enough plutonium could be produced for use in bombs by the war's end, Hanford was by early in operation.

Only two years had passed since Col. Franklin Matthias first set up his temporary headquarters on the banks of the Columbia River.

According to Kate Brown , the plutonium production plants at Hanford and Mayak in Russia, over a period of four decades, "both released more than million curies of radioactive isotopes into the surrounding environment — twice the amount expelled in the Chernobyl disaster in each instance".

In , a safe was discovered during excavations of a burial trench at the Hanford nuclear site. Inside the safe were various items, including a large glass bottle containing a whitish slurry which was subsequently identified as the oldest sample of weapons-grade plutonium known to exist.

Isotope analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory indicated that the plutonium in the bottle was manufactured in the X Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge during The first atomic bomb test, codenamed "Trinity" and detonated on July 16, , near Alamogordo, New Mexico , used plutonium as its fissile material.

The overall weapon weighed over 4 tonnes , although it used just 6. Large stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium were built up by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.

Radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant primarily resulted from two major plutonium fires in and Much lower concentrations of radioactive isotopes were released throughout the operational life of the plant from to Prevailing winds from the plant carried airborne contamination south and east, into populated areas northwest of Denver.

The contamination of the Denver area by plutonium from the fires and other sources was not publicly reported until the s.

According to a study coauthored by Edward Martell , "In the more densely populated areas of Denver, the Pu contamination level in surface soils is several times fallout", and the plutonium contamination "just east of the Rocky Flats plant ranges up to hundreds of times that from nuclear tests".

The plant has since been shut down, with its buildings demolished and completely removed from the site.

On March 5, , Energy Secretary Steven Chu told a Senate hearing "the Yucca Mountain site no longer was viewed as an option for storing reactor waste".

During and after the end of World War II, scientists working on the Manhattan Project and other nuclear weapons research projects conducted studies of the effects of plutonium on laboratory animals and human subjects.

In the case of human subjects, this involved injecting solutions containing typically five micrograms of plutonium into hospital patients thought to be either terminally ill, or to have a life expectancy of less than ten years either due to age or chronic disease condition.

From to , eighteen human test subjects were injected with plutonium without informed consent. The tests were used to create diagnostic tools to determine the uptake of plutonium in the body in order to develop safety standards for working with plutonium.

The Plutonium Files chronicles the lives of the subjects of the secret program by naming each person involved and discussing the ethical and medical research conducted in secret by the scientists and doctors.

The episode is now considered to be a serious breach of medical ethics and of the Hippocratic Oath. The government covered up most of these radiation mishaps until , when President Bill Clinton ordered a change of policy and federal agencies then made available relevant records.

The committee issued a controversial report which said that "wrongs were committed" but it did not condemn those who perpetrated them.

The isotope plutonium is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons, due to its ease of fission and availability. Encasing the bomb's plutonium pit in a tamper an optional layer of dense material decreases the amount of plutonium needed to reach critical mass by reflecting escaping neutrons back into the plutonium core.

The Fat Man plutonium bombs used explosive compression of plutonium to obtain significantly higher densities than normal, combined with a central neutron source to begin the reaction and increase efficiency.

Spent nuclear fuel from normal light water reactors contains plutonium, but it is a mixture of plutonium , , and The mixture is not sufficiently enriched for efficient nuclear weapons, but can be used once as MOX fuel.

If fast neutron reactors are not available the normal case , excess plutonium is usually discarded, and forms the longest-lived component of nuclear waste.

The desire to consume this plutonium and other transuranic fuels and reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste is the usual reason nuclear engineers give to make fast neutron reactors.

Weapons-grade plutonium can be added to the fuel mix. MOX fuel has been in use since the s, and is widely used in Europe.

MOX fuel improves total burnup. Plutonium recovered from spent reactor fuel poses little proliferation hazard, because of excessive contamination with non-fissile plutonium and plutonium Separation of the isotopes is not feasible.

A dedicated reactor operating on very low burnup hence minimal exposure of newly formed plutonium to additional neutrons which causes it to be transformed to heavier isotopes of plutonium is generally required to produce material suitable for use in efficient nuclear weapons.

The IAEA conservatively classifies plutonium of all isotopic vectors as "direct-use" material, that is, "nuclear material that can be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives components without transmutation or further enrichment".

The isotope plutonium has a half-life of A sheet of paper can be used to shield against the alpha particles emitted by plutonium One kilogram of the isotope can generate about watts of heat.

These characteristics make it well-suited for electrical power generation for devices that must function without direct maintenance for timescales approximating a human lifetime.

It is therefore used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units such as those in the Cassini , [] Voyager , Galileo and New Horizons [] space probes, and the Curiosity Mars rover.

The twin Voyager spacecraft were launched in , each containing a watt plutonium power source. Over 30 years later, each source is still producing about watts which allows limited operation of each spacecraft.

Plutonium has also been used successfully to power artificial heart pacemakers , to reduce the risk of repeated surgery.

There are two aspects to the harmful effects of plutonium: Isotopes and compounds of plutonium are radioactive and accumulate in bone marrow.

Contamination by plutonium oxide has resulted from nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents , including military nuclear accidents where nuclear weapons have burned.

During the decay of plutonium, three types of radiation are released—alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are all forms of ionizing radiation.

Either acute or longer-term exposure carries a danger of serious health outcomes including radiation sickness , genetic damage , cancer , and death.

The danger increases with the amount of exposure. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin, but cannot go all the way through the body.

Gamma radiation can go all the way through the body. Plutonium is more dangerous when inhaled than when ingested. The risk of lung cancer increases once the total radiation dose equivalent of inhaled plutonium exceeds mSv.

However no human being is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies.

The " hot particle " theory in which a particle of plutonium dust irradiates a localized spot of lung tissue is not supported by mainstream research—such particles are more mobile than originally thought and toxicity is not measurably increased due to particulate form.

Once in the bloodstream, plutonium moves throughout the body and into the bones, liver, or other body organs. Plutonium that reaches body organs generally stays in the body for decades and continues to expose the surrounding tissue to radiation and thus may cause cancer.

A commonly cited quote by Ralph Nader states that a pound of plutonium dust spread into the atmosphere would be enough to kill 8 billion people.

This makes the toxicity of plutonium roughly equivalent with that of nerve gas. Several populations of people who have been exposed to plutonium dust e.

These studies generally do not show especially high plutonium toxicity or plutonium-induced cancer results, such as Albert Stevens who survived into old age after being injected with plutonium.

Plutonium has a metallic taste. Care must be taken to avoid the accumulation of amounts of plutonium which approach critical mass, particularly because plutonium's critical mass is only a third of that of uranium Criticality accidents have occurred in the past, some of them with lethal consequences.

Careless handling of tungsten carbide bricks around a 6. In December , during a process of purifying plutonium at Los Alamos, a critical mass was formed in a mixing vessel, which resulted in the death of a chemical operator named Cecil Kelley.

Other nuclear accidents have occurred in the Soviet Union, Japan, the United States, and many other countries. Metallic plutonium is a fire hazard, especially if the material is finely divided.

In a moist environment, plutonium forms hydrides on its surface, which are pyrophoric and may ignite in air at room temperature. Magnesium oxide sand is probably the most effective material for extinguishing a plutonium fire.

It cools the burning material, acting as a heat sink , and also blocks off oxygen. Special precautions are necessary to store or handle plutonium in any form; generally a dry inert gas atmosphere is required.

Around 11 metric tons of plutonium may be possessed by Japan alone, with 36 tons pending return after reprocessing in Britain and France.

This is probably enough to make 6, atomic bombs. The usual transportation of plutonium is through the more stable plutonium oxide in a sealed package.

A sea shipment may consist of several containers, each of them holding a sealed package. Government air transport regulations permit the transport of plutonium by air, subject to restrictions on other dangerous materials carried on the same flight, packaging requirements, and stowage in the rearmost part of the aircraft.

In media revealed that plutonium has been flown out of Norway on commercial passenger airlines —around every other year—including one time in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the radioactive element. For other uses, see Plutonium disambiguation. Human radiation experiments and Albert Stevens.

Plutonium in the environment. A decade after barium was discovered, a Cambridge University professor suggested it be renamed to "plutonium" because the element was not as suggested by the Greek root, barys , it was named for heavy.

He reasoned that, since it was produced by the relatively new technique of electrolysis , its name should refer to fire.

Thus he suggested it be named for the Roman god of the underworld, Pluto. Seaborg thought that he would receive a great deal of flak over that suggestion, but the naming committee accepted the symbol without a word.

These so-called 'hydrogen bombs' are a variety of nuclear weapon that use a fission bomb to trigger the nuclear fusion of heavy hydrogen isotopes.

Their destructive yield is commonly in the millions of tons of TNT equivalent compared with the thousands of tons of TNT equivalent of fission-only devices.

Retrieved November 23, Los Alamos National Laboratory 3rd quarter. Retrieved February 9, While plutonium dioxide is normally olive green, samples can be various colors.

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